Research interests

I am interested in the measurement and valuation of health in the context of health economic evaluations. More specifically, I am studying normative aspects of the aggregation of individual health state preferences into a social preference. For my research, I draw on methods and perspectives from various fields, combining health economics and cost-effectiveness modelling with ideas from game, social choice, and democratic theory.

Apart from this, I have wide-reaching research interests in open science, the use of R and R Shiny for efficient and transparent decision modeling, and the generation of actionable evidence from real-world data. I like learning new things and I am happy to collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects.

My PhD Research


Title: Social tariffs, preference heterogeneity, and collective choice: how to derive societal health state values that reflect the will of the people?

Supervisors: Ben van Hout and John Brazier


Working papers

On the unethical implications of ‘States Worse Than Dead’

Assigning negative values to ‘States Worse Than Dead’ and using them in economic evaluations to value the changes in individuals’ survival times implies unethical value judgements. In this paper I argue that a non-negative value should be assigned to all human lives.

This project is concerned with the interpersonal (in)comparability of (TTO) health state utilities. Inspired the concept of relative utilitarinism, a new multi-step utility aggregation procedure is proposed. The method is tested using EQ-5D 3L data from the UK and compared against the traditional social value set.

In this paper I argue that the valuation of health states should not be understood as merely a statistical exercise, but as major instrument of democratic participation. Alternative, more democratic decision rules and methods to derive social value sets are explored.

R and R Shiny for HTA


A lean and fast Shiny app for a time-dependant Markov model (1,000 PSA iterations in 4 sec)

WHO - Cost of FGM

Shiny App for projecting the costs of FGM

Making health economic models shiny

Creating interactive user interfaces for health economic models developed in R

Speedy 5S Markov

Demo of a fast 5-State Markov Model + a simple shiny app


Taking model outputs from MS Excel and create fancy figures in R / ggplot2

Intro to R online course web page (#R4ScHARR)

A short interactive intro to R

Other Projects

A study of the social and geographic disparities in the access to and the participation in parkrun events in England. Outputs form this project include a location-allocation analysis to identify optimal locations for future events and an interactive online map.

A case study of digital epidemiology. We used flu-related search query data from Google Trends and statistical learning techniques to monitor the 2017 /18 influence epidemic in the Netherlands in near real-time. Source code and data, as well as a step-by-step tutorial are provided.

Exploring (latent) cost trajectories in patients with advanced breast cancer in the Netherlands during the last year of life, using group-based trajectory modelling and real world-data from a regional cancer registry.

A R tutorial on how to access your personal fitbit data and analyse your sleeping patterns.

Staffing and the quality of care in German hospitals

This study investigates the association between staffing (nurses and physicians) and the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in acute care hospitals in Germany.


Working papers

  • Schneider PP. The QALY is ableist – on the unethical implications of health states worse than dead. 2020. lolaHESG discussion paper

  • Schneider PP. Setting Dead at Zero? On the contingency of the utility unit scale. 2020. Working paper

  • Schneider PP, van Hout B, Brazier J. Fair interpersonal utility comparison in the context of health valuation studies: early results of a new multi-step preference aggregation procedure. 2020. EuroQol ECR discussion paper

  • Schneider PP. Interpersonal comparability of health state utilities: why it is unfair to measure preferences in units of full-health-time, and what we can do about it. 2019. HESG discussion paper

Journal articles

  • Schneider, P.P. Social tariffs and democratic choice—Do population‐based health state values reflect the will of the people?. Health Economics. 2020.

  • Smith R, Schneider P. Making health economic models Shiny: A tutorial. Wellcome Open Research. 2020 Apr 14;5(69):69.

  • Schneider PP, Pouwels XG, Passos VL, Ramaekers BL, Geurts SM, Ibragimova KI, de Boer M, Erdkamp F, Vriens BE, van de Wouw AJ, den Boer MO. Variability of cost trajectories over the last year of life in patients with advanced breast cancer in the Netherlands. Plos one. 2020 Apr 9;15(4):e0230909.

  • Schneider PP, Smith RA, Bullas AM, Quirk H, Bayley T, Haake SJ, Brennan A, Goyder E. Multiple deprivation and geographic distance to community physical activity events—achieving equitable access to parkrun in England. Public health. 2020 Dec 1;189:48-53.

  • Smith R, Schneider P, Bullas A, Haake S, Quirk H, Cosulich R, Goyder E. Does ethnic density influence community participation in mass participation physical activity events? The case of parkrun in England. Wellcome Open Research. 2020 Jan 16;5(9):9.

  • Schneider PP, van Gool CJ, Spreeuwenberg P, Hooiveld M, Donker GA, Barnett DJ, Paget J. Using web search queries to monitor influenza-like illness: an exploratory retrospective analysis, Netherlands, 2017/18 influenza season. Eurosurveillance. 2020 May 28;25(21):1900221.

  • Schneider PP, Geraedts M. Staffing and the incidence of pressure ulcers in German hospitals: A multicenter cross-sectional study. Nursing Health Sciences. 2016. (Open Access version:

Other research output

  • Preprint: Schneider PP, Smith RA, Bullas AM, Bayley T, Haake SSJ, Brennan A, Goyder E. Where should new parkrun events be located? Modelling the potential impact of 200 new events on socio-economic inequalities in access and participation. MedRxiv. 2019.

  • Website: Schneider PP, Smith RA, Bullas AM, Bayley T, Haake SSJ, Brennan A, Goyder E. Identifying Optimal Locations for Maximising Access to parkun – Interactive online map. 2019.

  • R Tutorial: Schneider PP, Paget J, Spreeuwenberg P, Barnett D, van Gool C. Using Wikipedia and Google data to estimate near real-time influenza incidence in Germany: A Tutorial in R. 2017.

  • Poster presentation: Schneider PP, Paget J, Barnett D, Spreeuwenberg P, van Gool C. We can monitor influneza in Germany in near real-time using online data from Google and Wikipedia. WEON. 2019. Conference Poster.

  • Thesis: Schneider PP. Association between nurse and physician staffing and the quality of care in German hospitals [in German]. 2017.

  • Poster presentation: Schneider PP, Kraska R, Geraedts M. Staffing and pressure ulcer prevention in hospitals [in German]. 59th Congress of the Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP). 2016. Conference Poster and Abstract.